What is meth used for?
The first meth stimulant was developed in 1919 by a Japanese pharmacologist. It produced feelings of well-being and alertness and alleviated fatigue. But does meth have any therapeutic medical uses? How does meth use affect the body? We review here, and invite your questions about meth or how you can help a meth addict at the end.
Today, meth is rarely used in medicine. While methamphetamine salts can be prescribed by a doctor to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other conditions (sleeping disorders, for example), meth has been classified as a Schedule II drug, meaning it has high potential for abuse and is available only through a prescription that cannot be refilled.
Meth uses and side effects
Generally, methamphetamine is taken orally, smoked, snorted, or dissolved in water or alcohol and injected. Because the pleasure fades quickly, users often take repeated doses, in a “binge and crash” pattern. But this drug creates havoc on the human body, affecting both body and brain. There are many negative side effects to meth use, but we’ll take a look at the most important ones.
First of all, meth rapidly releases dopamine in “reward regions” of the brain, generating the euphoric “rush” or “flash” that many users experience. But every pleasure comes at a price. Long term methamphetamine use has many negative consequences for physical health, including extreme weight loss, severe dental problems (“meth mouth”), and skin sores caused by scratching. Additionally, long term meth effects on the brain can include:
- emotional and cognitive problems
- impaired verbal learning
- reduced motor skills
When it comes to the body, meth abuse can be recognized by symptoms which can include:
- decreased appetite
- increased blood pressure
- increased body temperature
- increased physical activity
- increased respiration
- irregular heart beat
- rapid heart rate
Also, people who use or abuse methamphetamine over the long term may experience anxiety, confusion, insomnia, and mood disturbances and display violent behavior. They may also show symptoms of psychosis, such as paranoia, visual and auditory hallucinations, and delusions (for example, the sensation of insects crawling under the skin). Further, a high tolerance to meth can indicate major problems with meth use and can require longer term treatment.
Illegal meth use
Meth has been used illegally since the 1950’s, when truckers, homemakers, college students and athletes used it to stay awake or keep active. This practice continued in 1960’s in subcultures such as outlaw biker gangs and students, which cooked and used the drug.
The penalties for meth possession, sale, and manufacture vary, depending on where the case was prosecuted (federal charges carry the same penalties, no matter where in the country the prosecution occurs, but each state has its own sentencing provisions). A meth conviction can result in punishments ranging from a fine, a misdemeanor jail term, or a lengthy prison term for a felony conviction. The greater the amount of meth possessed (usually measured in terms of weight), the longer the potential prison sentence tends to be. Even greater penalties apply if a person is convicted not simply of possessing meth, but of possessing it with the intent to sell or traffic it.
Most of the methamphetamine abused in the U.S. comes from foreign or domestic superlabs, although it can also be made in small, illegal laboratories, where its production endangers the people in the labs, neighbors, and the environment. The most common ingredient in meth is pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, commonly found in cold medicine. Through a cooking process the pseudoephedrine or ephedrine is chemically changed into meth. The ingredients that are used in the process of making meth can include: ether, paint thinner, Freon®, acetone, anhydrous ammonia, iodine crystals, red phosphorus, drain cleaner, battery acid, and lithium (taken from inside batteries).
Problems with meth
There are many ways of identifying a meth addict. The most common signs are physical symptoms, mentioned earlier: decreased appetite, increased physical activity, anxiety, shaking hands, nervousness, increased body temperature and dilated pupils. These are early signs of meth use, which progress over time.
People successfully recover from crystal meth addictions via both inpatient and outpatient treatment programs. However, as this stimulant is a highly addictive drug, some people need to recover in a stable environment that’s free of opportunities to use. It’s important that you review your options and choose the program that gives you the best chance at success.
Outpatient treatment – There are two types of outpatient treatment programs. A daily check-in program only requires you to meet with a drug abuse counselor once per day, while a day treatment program requires you to stay at the treatment facility for eight hours per day. Since both programs allow little interruption to your normal life, you can continue to work and spend time with your family.
Inpatient treatment – Inpatient treatment programs allow you to recover in an environment that’s free from temptation. The centers have medical staff on hand to help you through the detoxification process. During a stay at the facility, your day revolves around your recovery. A typical day could include group therapy sessions, individual therapy sessions, recreational activities designed to teach you how to have fun without drugs and educational lectures about drug abuse.
Meth use questions
Still have questions about meth and its use or abuse? If you or someone close to you have meth problems, don’t hesitate to contact us; we’ll try to provide you with information on available treatments nearby, or refer your question to experts in the field of addiction treatment.
Reference Sources: Vermont State Health Department: A Brief History of Meth
Photo credit: Wiki Media Commons